Source: Viomundo | Fundação Perseu Abramo
By: Cecília Figueiredo
Eu moro na roça, iáiá
Eu nunca morei na cidade
Compro jornal de manhã
Pra saber das novidades
A study by the Nucleus of Public Opinion Studies — NEOP — of the Perseu Abramo Foundation — linked in turn to the Workers Party and the CUT labor federation — depicts a socially conservative, radio-listening Brazilian media consumer who is skeptical of the news and favors increased regulation of the media sector, though he or she does not quite understand the concept of a public concession
The Internet is gaining among Brazilians as a vehicle for information about the city, the nation and the world. Although it is tied with the hot lead, paper-and-ink press as a customary source of information, the sum of portals, blogs and peer recommendations on the Internet is surpassing this press. These are some of the findings of the survey “Democratization of the Media,” conducted by NEOP and the FPA and presented on August 16 in São Paulo.
According to this study, carried out between April 20 and May 6 of this year and based on interviews with 2,400 persons above the age of 16 who live in urban and rural areas of 120 townships distributed evenly over the five main regions, 82% watch open to air TV on a daily basis, but nearly half that number (43%) said they did not identify with the programming, while 25% saw themselves as portrayed negatively, compared with 32% who see themselves presented positively. TV is the most frequently used by the population, but radio has more reach in the more remote cities,” according to study coordinator Gustavo Venturi of NEOP.
71% favor rules for public concessions
Venturi said that seven in 10 Brazilians do not know that TV broadcasting licenses are public concessions. “In the view of 60%, they are private property, like any other business,” the sociologist said. “Even so”, he added, “71% of the population favor more rules defining the programming that is aired.”
In response to the possibility of imposing more rules on TV programming and publicity, most of the persons interviewed (46%) said they prefer social control by “an agency or council that represents society” to the type of autregulation in force today (31%). Nearly one in 5 said they were favorable to government control (19%).
Most of those interviewed also said that TV tends to allocate more space to the business class (61%) than to workers (18%). They consider the news focused almost entirely on São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro (44%), and they believe that the influence of programming for children and adolescents is more negative (39%) than positive (27%) for their children’s development. “11% of those interviewed disagree that the media is impartial,” Venturi said.
Though 65% expresssed a relative trust in the “partiality and neutrality” of the news, only 21,9% believe that the media reports the facts without favoring one side or the other.
As to the treatment of social problems by TV, most viewers (56.7%) believe they are not adequately reported. Regarding diversity, 54% say that TV does not portray the diversity of society and 22% said these topics were invisible.
The subjects answered in a similar vein to the question of whether TV content reflects reality: 51% said only part of the Brazilian reality is shown and 23% said it is not shown.
Most of the subjects also consider that TV depicts women disrespectfully at times (47%) nearly always (17%), just as it disrespects Northeasterners at times (44%) or nearly always (19%). The same went for black people ( 49% and 17%, respectfully) –who are depicted much less often than they should be (52%).
With respect to alcoholic beverage advertising, nearly all respondents (88%) approve changes in the legislation, whether they are to ban such ads (44%) or to limit them to “late night and early morning” hours (44%).
A foundation for social debate
Joaquim Soriano, director of the FPA, which coordinated the event, along with Gustavo Venturi (Sociology, USP) and Vilma Bokany (Neop), was congratulated in the name of the foundation for the initiative. “This study strengthens the movement in favor of media regulation, opening the way for fresh studies and sealing a commitment by all who struggle for the right to communication,” said Rita Freire, of Ciranda da Comunicação a representative of the Curatorial Council of the EBC.
In the view of FPA journalist Daniel Castro, the study points out the need to discuss the role of the media in society.
Laurindo Lalo Leal Filho, (Sociology, Journalism, ECA-USP), also stressed the need to amplify the scope of the study. “Despite its importance, this study will not be published by the mainstream media. We will film a Ver TV episode on the subject next week,” announced Lalo, referring to the program on TV Brasil. Also present will be Beá Tibiriçá, of Coletivo Digital, who says “I will pass through training at the Foundation and present the study in other states. ”
“Even though it does not understand what a public concession is, the population defends rules for the sector,” commented Altamiro Borges of the Barão de Itararé Center for Alternative Media Studies . Impressed by the data presented by the study, he suggested sponsoring legislation to inform the population that “TV is a concession.”
In the view of Renata Mielle, coordinator of both the Barão de Itararé and the National Forum for Democratization of the Media (FNDC), the study is a “priceless contribution”. According to Miro Borges, it will enable viewers and readers to transcend the opinion journalism [of the viewspapers]. “We are now starting to have more solid grounds for the public debate,” saidPedro Ekman, of Intervozes.
At the closing session of the event, transmitted by the blog portal “Conversa Afiada”, by Record TV journalist Paulo Henrique Amorim and followed by about 500 Internauts through the Web site of the FPA, the FPA director announced that the study “Democratization of the Media” will be launched in coming weeks in Rio and the Federal District, as well as other regions and locales that request it.
Also present at the debate,
- Iole Ilíada, VP, FPA
- Joaquim Palhares, founder, Agência Carta Maior and member, Altercom
- Pedro Ekman, Intervozes
- Rachel Moreno, Rede Mulher e Mídia, Frentex and FNDC
- Terezinha Vicente, da Articulação Mulher e Mídia.
PS: Globo requested the transmission code for the event from the foundation, but as of 7:33 p.m., at the conclusion of the event, had published no text or images of the event. Nothing but a telephone call requesting an adjustment to the audio.
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